He was actually the 6th King Charles. A medal with Charles on horseback, his long hair flying in the wind, was struck in 1714 to commemorate the speedy ride. The king was incapacitated by a coma resulting from his injuries and was unable to lead the Swedish forces. And Winter barricades the realms of Frost; No dangers fright him, and no labours tire; For Hatton, it was not Charles’ death in battle that saved Sweden from a destructive war, but his death ended any real chance of victory (521). Hide, blushing Glory, hide Pultowa's day: Life of Charles XII of Sweden Apr 5, 1697. By 1706 Charles, now 24 years old, had forced all of his foes into submission including, in that year, a decisively devastating victory by Swedish forces under general Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld over a combined army of Saxony and Russia at the Battle of Fraustadt. He then shifted the Swedish army to Pernau in present day Estonia and upon hearing of the Saxon withdrawal from the gates of … Charles spent the following years in exile in the Ottoman Empire before returning to lead an assault on Norway, trying to evict the Danish king from the war once more in order to aim all his forces at the Russians. Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound? See Answer. A popular but unproven theory is that the murder was an act of conspiracy made by his sister's (Ulrika Eleonora) husband, Fredrik, who was crowned Fredrik I.It is believed that the murder was committed by Fredrik’s aide-de-camp, André Sicre, who confe… Russia also declared war (August 1700), but stopped short of an attack on Swedish Ingria until September 1700.  Instead he made it clear that he would marry only someone of his own choice, and for love rather than dynastic pressures. The campaign ended with disaster when the Swedish army suffered heavy losses to a Russian force more than twice its size at Poltava. In the following mid-May, Charles invaded again, this time striking the border town of Fredrikshald, now Halden, in an attempt to capture the fortress of Fredriksten.  Historians such as Blanning and Montefiore believe he was in fact homosexual. Russian forces managed to penetrate Ingria and established a new city, Saint Petersburg, there. The three authors whom this essay examined laid out three distinct views of Charles XII of Sweden. Stern Famine guards the solitary coast, Top Answer. And shows his miseries in distant lands; Swedish author Frans G. Bengtsson and Professor Ragnhild Hatton have written biographies of Charles XII of Sweden.  Some historians suggest that he resisted a marriage with Denmark which could have caused a family rift between those who dynastically favoured Holstein-Gottorp. Swedish kings Erik XIV (1560–1568) and Charles IX (1604–1611) gave themselves numerals after studying a mythological history of Sweden. Charles attacked under cover of a blizzard, effectively split the Russian army in two and won the battle. In 1731, Voltaire wrote a biography of Charles XII, History of Charles XII. Rumours that he was a hermaphrodite were quelled in 1917 when his coffin was opened and he was shown to have suffered no physical irregularities. The march begins in military state, In 1718 Charles once more invaded Norway.  It has also been suspected that a plot to kill Charles may have been put in place by a group of wealthy Swedes who would benefit from the blocking of a 17% wealth tax that Charles intended to introduce. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:Charles XII of Sweden.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. Storhet och Fall. Register Military. Peace courts his hand, but spreads her charms in vain; G.P. They were called "Askersson" (the word asker in Turkish means soldier). (eds. Michael Srigley describes how, on November 30th, 1718, one of the foremost soldiers of the age was shot while besieging a fortress in Norway. I have no idea whether this version is true. He traveled across the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary to Vienna and arrived at Stralsund. 251,257 Pages. A likely explanation has been that Charles was killed by the Dano-Norwegians as he was within easy reach of their guns. Wiki User Answered . Peter Englund asserted in his essay "On the death of Charles XII and other murders" that the mortal wound sustained by the King, with a smaller exit wound than entry wound, would be consistent with being hit by a bullet with a speed not exceeding 150 m/s, concluding that Charles was killed by stray grapeshot from the nearby fortress. A major victory over a Russian army some three times the size in 1700 at the Battle of Narva compelled Peter the Great to sue for peace which Charles then rejected. Due to a lack of heavy siege cannons he was unable to dislodge the Norwegian forces inside. Let op: om deze website goed te kunnen gebruiken is het noodzakelijk om Cookies aan te zetten. According to a report by contemporary scientist Emanuel Swedenborg, the King had sketched a model of his thoughts on a piece of paper and handed it to him at their meeting in Lund in 1716. , Russia had opened their part of the war by invading the Swedish-held territories of Livonia and Estonia.  More sinister theories claim he was assassinated: One is that the killer was a Swedish compatriot and asserts that enemy guns were not firing at the time Charles was struck. Despite multiple investigations of the battlefield, Charles' skull and his clothes, it is not known where he was hit exactly, and whether the shot came from the ranks of the enemy or from his own men. ), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Did no subverted empire mark his end? The paper was reportedly still in existence a hundred years later but has since been lost. And all be mine beneath the polar sky." Charles XI of Sweden: Mother: Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark: Religion: Lutheran: Signature: Charles XII, also Carl (Swedish: Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 … Instead, he turned against Poland-Lithuania, which was formally neutral at this point, thereby disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament. A Saxon army simultaneously invaded Swedish Livonia and in February 1700 surrounded Riga, the most populous city of the Swedish Empire. He comes, not want and cold his course delay; - ", Herman Lindquist (in Swedish): Historian om Sverige. It has not been involved in a war since the Napoleonic era. Charles' subsequent march on Moscow met with initial success as victory followed victory, the most significant of which was the Battle of Holowczyn where the smaller Swedish army routed a Russian army twice the size. In order for the Jewish and Muslim creditors to avoid this, Charles wrote a "free letter" so that they could practice their religions without being punished. For the remaining fragment of Gothenburg's city walls, see, Richard Cavendish, "The Battle of Narva. Despite multiple investigations of the battlefield, Charles's skull and his clothes, it is not known where and when he was hit, or whether the shot came from the ranks of the enemy or from his own men. He had tried to avoid battle, but once his enemies began it, he resolved to punish them. When Sweden was not taking part in a war he still did not want to give this power up, and he saw the high nobility as his main threat to his position as king because of …  The non-mathematical numbering tradition continues with the current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, being counted as the equivalent of Charles XVI. Charles XII was king of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. It is clear that the king was struck in the head by a projectile and killed, but his death is largely a mystery when it… England and the Netherlands supported him and his armies won over the Danes during a sea battle.He also beat Peter I Russian Tsar. Charles XII is crowned King of Sweden. Charles XII of Sweden (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718) was King of Sweden from 5 April 1697 to 30 November 1718, succeeding Charles XI of Sweden and preceding Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden.King Charles was known as an exceptionally skilled military leader and tactician and an able politician, proving himself during the Great Northern War against the Russian Empire. Charles left the homeland with a defense of approximately 28,800 men, with a further 14,000 in Swedish Finland as well as further garrisons in the Baltic and German provinces. Although there were many people around the king at the time of his death, there were no known witnesses to the actual moment he was struck. Another interesting point in Charles XII's history is the fact that France, Sweden's ally since the Thirty Years War was herself embroiled in yet another losing war against another great coalition, and also due to reasons similar to those of Charles XII, as Louis XIV of France was another monarch unable to acknowledge any limits to his ambitions. War sounds the trump, he rushes to the field; While in the trenches close to the perimeter of the fortress on 11 December (30 November Old Style), 1718, Charles was struck in the head by a projectile and killed. Charles XII was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718 and by all accounts was pretty hardcore. , While Charles won several decisive battles in the Commonwealth and ultimately secured the coronation of his ally Stanisław Leszczyński and the surrender of Saxony, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great embarked on a military reform plan that improved the Russian army, using the effectively organized Swedes and other European standards for role models. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. , Meanwhile, Russia and Poland regained and expanded their borders.  Suspects in this claim range from a nearby soldier tired of the siege and wanting to put an end to the war, to an assassin hired by Charles's own brother-in-law, who profited from the event by subsequently taking the throne himself as Frederick I of Sweden, that person being Frederick's aide-de-camp, André Sicre.  Historians of the late 18th and early 19th centuries viewed Charles' death as the result of an aristocratic plot, and Gustav IV Adolf, the king who refused to settle with Napoleon Bonaparte, "identified himself with Charles as a type of righteous man struggling with iniquity" (Roberts). Charles XII, sometimes Carl (Swedish: Karl XII) or Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Charles XII Wittelsbach von Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Sweden, King of Sweden, Duke of Bremen, Prince of Verden, Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, was born 17 June 1682 in Tre Kronor, Sweden to Charles XI of Sweden (1655-1697) and Ulrica Leonora of Denmark (1656-1693) and … God and I live still.).  There are several hypotheses as to how Charles died, though none can be given with any certainty. Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire, 1682-1719. He died instantaneously. Sweden has had her share of memorable monarchs. A frame of adamant, a soul of fire, He is played by Viktor Gyllenberg. However, in the Early Modern Period the Kingdom of Sweden was one of the powerhouses of Europe and the greatest power in Northern Europe. It reads Was sorget Ihr doch? Period: Jun 17, 1682 to Nov 30, 1718. Förflutenhetens landskap ("The Landscape of Times Past") (1991), collection of essays, pp. His father, Charles X of Sweden, had left Sweden in July that year to fight in the war against Poland.After several years of warfare, the king returned in the winter of 1659, gathered his family and the Riksdag of the Estates in Gothenburg.Here he beheld his four-year-old son for the first time. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it seemed that every other ruler crowned in Stockholm was astonishing in one way or another. 1556332. During his semi-imprisonment the King played chess and studied the Ottoman Navy and the naval architecture of the Ottoman galleons. Many of Peter's troops who fled the battlefield drowned in the Narva River. Charles defeated the Polish king Augustus II and his Saxon allies at the Battle of Kliszow in 1702 and captured many cities of the Commonwealth. The failed invasion of Russia by Hitler and Napoleon are well known. It is strongly suggested that Charles' sister, Ulrika's husband, Frederick, paid a Swedish soldier to shoot Charles during a battle so that when Charles dies, Frederick to take the throne through his wife. 2nd edition. , Charles XII figures quite prominently in Robert Massie's magnum opus Peter the Great.. In this fascinating and scholarly biography Professor Hatton has tackled the basic problem which any modern study of Charles XII, King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718, poses: where does the truth lie between the vilification of one school of historians for whom an 'illiterate warrior-king' can do nothing right, and the boundless admiration of those who, in search of rational e Today we associate Sweden with liberal values and a peaceful society. A second force, under Carl Gustaf Armfeldt, marched against Trondheim with 10,000 men but was forced to retreat. He made the journey on horseback, riding across Europe in just fifteen days. The exact circumstances around Charles' death are unclear. Charles XII, also Carl, Latinised to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. His sketches and designs eventually led to the famous Swedish war ships Jarramas (Yaramaz) and Jilderim (Yıldırım). His fall was destined to a barren strand, Under the House of Vassa the kingdom had expanded greatly. To point a moral or adorn a tale. Behold surrounding kings their power to combine, However, the sultan Ahmed III's subjects in the empire eventually got tired of Charles' scheming. Sweden's western enemies attacked southern and western Sweden while Russian forces traveled across Finland to attack the Stockholm district. Please email [email protected] if you have any problems. To Charles the defense of his realm w… https://www.historytoday.com/archive/death-charles-xii-sweden The definitive circumstances around Charles's death remain unclear. Georg Heinrich von Görtz, Charles' minister, was beheaded in 1719. Charles countered this by attacking the Russian besiegers at the Battle of Narva (November 1700). , The Swedish power metal band Sabaton wrote an album named after him, which includes several songs about his life. The vanquished hero leaves his broken bands, , Exceptional for abstaining from alcohol and sex, he felt most comfortable during warfare. How just his hopes let Swedish Charles decide; While the siege at Fredrikshald was underway, the Swedish supply fleet was attacked and defeated by Tordenskjold in the Battle of Dynekilen.. In late 1699 Charles sent a minor detachment to reinforce his brother-in-law Duke Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp, who was attacked by Danish forces the following year. Later on, the Ottomans and Russians signed the Treaty of the Pruth and Treaty of Adrianople to end the hostilities between them. Meanwhile, the Swedish Council of State (government) and Estates/Diet (Parliament) tried to keep the beleaguered Sweden somehow organized and independent. Charles was succeeded to the Swedish throne by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. Add new page. At about nine o'clock on the night of November 30th, 1718, as Charles XII was inspecting sapping operations from a forward trench before the Norwegian fortress of Fredrickshall, a bullet travelling at high speed entered his left temple, and passed clean through his skull.  Examples of the romantic hero idolatry of Charles XII in several genres are Esaias Tegnér's song Kung Karl, den unge hjälte (1818), Johan Peter Molin's statue in Stockholm's Kungsträdgården (unveiled on 30 November 1868, the 150th anniversary of Charles' death) and Gustaf Cederström's painting Karl XII:s likfärd ("Funeral procession of Charles XII", 1878). Charles XII appears in the absurdist comedy A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence (2014), in which his army passes a modern-day cafe on their way to, and retreating from, the Battle of Poltava. The 1925 Swedish film Charles XII was a silent epic portraying his reign. Click here for more informationCharles XII was born to Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark in Tre Kronor castle in Sweden.  In the Varberg Fortress museum there is a display with a lead filled brass button - Swedish - that is claimed by some to be the projectile that killed the king. "Think nothing gained", he cries, "till nought remain, , The fact that Charles was crowned as Charles XII does not mean that he was the 12th king of Sweden by that name. Eventually, "crowds" of townspeople attacked the Swedish colony at Bender and Charles had to defend himself against the mobs and the Ottoman Janissaries involved. ), A Small Giant (Compendium) of the Finnish History / Suomen historian pikkujättiläinen. This uprising was called "kalabalık" (Turkish for crowd) which afterwards found a place in Swedish lexicon referring to a ruckus. Afterwards, he settled in Bender at the invitation of its governor, Yusuf Pasha. With the war consuming more than half his life and nearly all his reign, he never married and fathered no children. The soldiers chose to remain in Sweden instead of difficult trips home. King Charles XII of Sweden died on November 30, 1718 at the age of 36. It had emerged as one of the real winners from the Thirty Years War. 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